Vuikuma im kuas fia de Boariše špráh. I bin ta Hias un in dem kuas veasd du leana via ma Boariš ret un šraibt.
Why did I start with a Bavarian sentence right away? Isn't this supposed to be a beginner course? Yes, but the only way you really are going to learn a language is if you are exposed to it. A lot of words in Bavarian are cognates to English words. If you read the introductory sentence, then you might be able to find some and understand the gist of it. The cognates are
leana to learn
The pronunciation might be very different to any language you are used to. But as I will show you, it is very simmilar to Spanish. In fact, most sounds in Bavarian are exactly the same as in Spanish.
So let's look at the vowel sounds. Bavarian has 8 vowel sounds and you have got them in English too.
á bath (BE)
e fester (but even higher/closer to "i")
Now I want to give you some greetings, responses and goodbyes. The words in parantheses are optional, but at least one of them needs to be used.
Servus (Informal greeting)
Grias (eana) (God) (Formal greeting, literally "God shall greet you")
Grias di (God) (Informal greeting)
Via géd's? How are you? (literally "How goes it?")
Guad, un dia? Good, and you?
Aa guad. Good too.
Bast. Good (literally "Suits" this word can be used a lot, more on that later)
Bhiat (eana) (God) (Formal goodbye, literally "God may look after you")
Bhiat di (God) (Informal goodbye)
Definite articles are probably the hardest thing to learn about Bavarian. They are sort of assigned to a noun based on its category. Most articles are the same as in German, so if you want to go by these categories, then you can find lists online. I find it easier to simply learn the articles with the noun. After a while it will just feel "right" when you need to know an article for a noun.
Bavarian has three genders, feminine, masculine and neutrum. The three articles are
as the (neutrum)
ta the (masculine)
te the (feminine)
Let's see some words we already know and some new words with the articles attached.
ta kuas the course
ta God the God
te špráh the language
te kua the cow
as haus the house
as buah the book
You may be wondering if you said this all right, but don't worry. The most important thing is to speak at all, good pronunciation comes with time. But to give you a little help, let's look at the consonants in Bavarian, that are different from English.
b a bit softer than in English
d a bit softer than in English, almost like "th"
g like in English but without the "click"
k a bit softer than in English, almost like English "g"
p a bit softer than in English, almost like English "b"
r a short rolled "r", usually replaced with an "a" or "á" in the middle or end of the word
s always like in "sing"
t a bit softer than in English, almost like English "d"
v same sound as "b", almost like English "w"
x same as in "box"
z like the "ts" in "cats"
Great, now you should be able to say some things in Bavarian in an inteligable manner. Let's continue by introducing more subject pronouns. You have already encountered some. The subject pronouns in Bavarian are:
du you (informal plural)
ees you (formal/informal dual/plural)
ia you (formal/informal plural)
si you (formal singular/plural)
Now the only thing we need to learn to form basic sentences are some verbs. Let's start with one of the most common verbs "sei", which means "to be". "sei" is the infinite form of the verb. What follows is "sei" mapped to the subject pronouns we have just learned.
i bin I am
du bist you are
ea is he is
si is she is
es is it is
mia han/san we are
ees saits you are
ia saits you are
si han/san you are
de han/san they are
This should allow you to build very simple sentences, here are some examples.
I bin grous I am tall
Es is šee It is beautiful
Du bist blau You are blue
Si han guad You are good
Let's move on to the next step, which is to learn about other verbs. Verbs in Bavarian are very regular. Most verbs in their indefinite form either have the ending "a" or "n".
kafa to buy
saufa to drink
hofa to hope
gáfa to stare
šnaizn to sneeze
fárn to drive
hóitn to hold
baissn to bite
Of course, since they are in the indefinite form, you can't use them in conjunction with subject pronouns like that. One thing to note is that every verb I will teach you can be splittet into its stem and its ending. The way of forming a verb witht a subject pronoun is to attach the ending that correspons to that subject pronoun. These are the same for all verbs. So let's see some examples.
I kaf removing the ending
du saufst adding -st
ea/si/es sauft adding -t
mia fárma adding -ma (only applies when you do something with yourselves)
mia fárn same as indefinite form (only applies when you do something with others)
ees/ia baissts adding -ts
si/de hóitn same as indefenite form
Great, now you can already from simple sentences. Let's move on to indefinite articles. This is very simple in Bavarian. There are only 3 indefinite articles. The most basic one is "a", which is the same as in English, but then there is also "an" and "am". "an" is only used when an action happens to any arbitrary masculin noun. For example "I méhad an hund" (I would like a dog) or "Ea bringd da an déla" (He gets you a plate). "am" is only used when an action happens to a certain masculin noun. For example "Ea bringd am mo an déla" (He brings a plate to a man). If you noticed, this example actually contained both in them because an action happened to a certain masculine noun (the man) and an arbirtary noun (a plate). You could change the "am" to an "an" in this sentence, which would mean that he brings a plate to some random unspecified man.
I think this was a bit much at once. I would recommend you to only use "a", but keep in mind that "an" and "am" exist. Just watch out for them when you read something and you will get a feeling for when to use them with time.
Alright. By now you might be wondering "What about numbers?" Great question, let's move on to that. Now I will teach you numbers, first from one to ten:
They sound very similar to English, don't they? As with any of the lessons, keep repeating now and then to memorize them. Good, let's go to bigger numbers. The numbers eleven to twenty.
Seems to be similar to English too, just keep practicing the ones that are harder for you to remember. Higher numbers in the tens are simply the the ones plus the tens.
oanazvánzg twenty one
zvoarazvánzg twenty two
draiazvánzg twenty three
And so on. You may notice that the middle is not quite as clear in English, but it's easy to remember. You just simply add an "a", which has shortened from the word "un" (and). Also as you may have noticed, in the case of "zvoa-ra-zvánzg", there is a "ra". It is common to add an "r" in Bavarian to separate when one word ends with a vowel and the next starts with one. So it is also common to pronounce the "r" in "var i" (I would have been), or to simply add an "r" as in "zvoa-r-a-zvánzg". You can also leave it out, it's not mandatory. It's just so you know what to listen for. As you may also have noticed, the tens are simply a variation of the ones with an "zg" or "sg" added. So the other tens numbers are:
For even higher numbers you simply add the onse in the front.
zvoa hundat two hundret
Notice how "biliona" is not "billion". This is the same system as in German, since math was never tought to such numbers outside of schools and schools have always been in German, we use the same system.
mei my (singular)
meine my (plural)
dei your (singular)
deine your (plural)
sei his/its (singular)
seine his/its (plural)
ia her (singular)
iara her (plural)
There are three ways to create a question in Bavarian. Let's examine these by looking at the sentence "Da hund sauft" which translates to "The dog drinks". The first way is to simply raise your voice at the end.
"Da hund sauft?"
This is usually used when you are surprised at some new information. The second way is to put the verb before the subject, so it becomes
"Sauft da hund?"
The third way is to simply add a confirmation at the end, such as "gé", which is only used for that or "oda", which means "or". So the sentence can become
"Da hund sauft, oda?" or "Da hund sauft, gé?"
This concludes our course for now. It might be extended in the future, but this should give you enough information to get you started. I want to leave you off with some sentences in Bavarian. Try to translate them. I also supplied a translation. If you want to learn Bavarian, then I would suggest to read this simple course several times and make notes of the things that are especially hard for you to remember.
I móg koan hund ned
I don't want a dog
This course isn't supposed to make you talk perfect Bavarian at the end of it. It gives you an overview, so all you need to do is to keep practicing and learning new words. You can and should consult this document several times. It most likely will happen that you realize things when you read it the second, third or even fourth time, don't be ashamed, it's the natural way of learning things.
- Double negation
- Expressing time
- Interrogatives (w question words)